MAE 255: BOUNDARY LAYER AND RENEWABLE ENERGY METEOROLOGY
- Instructor: Prof. Jan Kleissl, jkleissl at ucsd
- Lectures: Mon, Wed, Fri 200-250 (U413A = University Center)
- Office Hours: Mon 1230-1, 130-2pm, EBU-2 580
- Homework (50% or 75% of grade, depending on option below)
- Project and presentation: 5-15 page project report by group (50%) or 5-10 minute paper presentation (25% of grade).
- Class cancellations: May 4th (meeting at CAISO), May 14, 16, 18: American Solar Energy Society Conference
- Introduction to the atmosphere
- Solar Energy Solar constant, solar geometry. Atmospheric transmissivity: gases and aerosols, clouds. Global horizontal, diffuse, and direct radiation. Solar resource assessment, sensors and instrumentation. Albedo. Reading: Stull I Chapter 2,18, Diak satellite insolation model, National Solar Radiation Database, NREL Specs for insolation measurements
- Solar energy systems: Types of systems: photovoltaic, concentrating solar power, solar hot water. Solar variability. Solar forecasting. Economics of solar energy. Required reading: Crabtree and Lewis (2007) solar energy conversion (), Hoff and Perez (2011), Hoff and Perez (2012), Lave, Kleissl, and Arias-Castro (2011) solar variability (TBD, Date), CAISO 20% Renewables Integration Study and 33% Renewables Integration Study Presentation, Denholm and Margolis (2007) Renewable Penetration (TBD, Date).
Other presentation topics (not required reading): explain and demo NREL PVWatts (TBD, Date), CA Center for Sustainable Energy Solar Hot Water Basics for Homeowners, Economic Value of Photovoltaic Generation
- Surface Energy Balance (longwave/thermal): Stefan's law, emissivity. Greenhouse effect. Surface energy balance: net radiation, ground heat flux, sensible and latent heat flux. Sensors and instrumentation. Other applications: Building heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC). Evapotranspiration and irrigation, Reading: Stull I Chapter 2 p. 36-38, Chapter 3, Kaimal p. 225 - 232
- Atmospheric boundary layer: Structure. Friction velocity and roughness. Stability, stratified flow, Obuhkov length, Richardson number. Moisture and heat in the atmosphere, thermodynamic diagrams, Atmospheric measurements and instrumentation. Reading: Stull I Chapters 3-6, 17; Stull II Chapter 2, 5, 7; Kaimal & Finnigan chapter 6
- Wind power meteorology: Mean velocity profile. Wind resource assessment. Flow over hills. Low-level jet. Sensors and instrumentation. Reading: Kaimal & Finnigan Ch 5, American Meteorological Society Meeting 2009: Summarize session on Modeling Tools for Energy Production in Urban and Complex Terrain, DOE Report Research Needs for Wind Resource Characterization, Hoogwijk renewable penetration, Nanahara et al. 2004: Coherence of wind power (Anson B.)
- Urban energy efficiency: urban surface energy balance; urban heat islands and mitigation; thermal effects of artificial turf; building energy use. Reading: ASHRAE Fundamentals: Ch 27-29: Residential cooling and heating load, ventilation and infiltration; Ch 30-32: Non-residential cooling and heating load, energy estimation and modeling. Older version available in library; Taha et al 2007 Simulation of the effect of urban surface modification on climate in LA; Ihara et al. 2007 UHI mitigation; Suehrcke et al 2008 Effect of roof reflectance on heat gain; Akbari et al. 2000 Roof reflectance and building energy use (); Rosenfeld and Akbari 1998 Costs and benefits of cool communities ; Kruger and Pearlmutter, 2008 Cooling of urban areas through evapotranspiration and effect on building energy use (). Akbari et al. (2009) Global cooling through urban albedo increase
- Solar-wind coupling, Solar Forecasting, and Reforcasting (guest lecture by Prof. Coimbra May 28 - Jun 8). Sources: Journal papers Gordon & Zarmi, 1989; Fischer & Hoffman, 2004; Barranco-Jimenez, Chimal-Eguia & Angulo-Brown, 2006. Background information is in Alexis de Vos "Thermodynamics of Solar Energy Conversion" (Whiley).
Comment on the result of each problem
Projects (Reports due June 11, 5pm by email). Here are some sample project reports. You can choose your own report topic:
- Solar: Develop insolation forecast model for San Diego in MATLAB using solar position algorithm, cloud forecast from NWS XML server or Opendap server.
- Solar: Given METSTAT model direct and diffuse radiation calculate optimum panel azimuth and tilt for all locations in California (extension of homework 2.3) (TBD).
- Solar: Develop algorithm to determine insolation at the land surface from GOES satellite data ()
- Solar: Develop photovoltaic power output model given insolation, air temperature, wind speed, and configuration using a heat transfer model.
- Solar: Analyze solar intermittency for DEMROES sites (TBD)
- Wind: Resource assessment and intermittency of combined off-shore and mountain wind power in California (TBD)
- Meteorology: Analyze DEMROES data to define microclimates on the UCSD campus (TBD)