Lectures week 8.


Chapter 13 is about the plants and animals that live on, in, or near the ocean floor, the Benthos. Seaweeds are found near shore, and provide food for many forms of benthic animals. Nori production in Japan is a billion dollar industry. Other marine foods for people are studied by the United Nations FOA. The California Sea Grant program fosters research on the use of all forms of ocean resources.


Chapter 14 is about Coasts, Coastal Oceans, and Large Lakes. Wetlands provide valuable breeding spaces for many marine species. These areas are fragile, and need societal protection. Habitats in the sea are quite varied, providing protected or at least living areas for species from shrimps to whales. Estuaries are formed by either the geological processes that formed them, or by the dynamics of the freshwater and saltwater mixing and circulation within. San Francisco bay is a tektonic estuary. Chesapeake Bay is a drowned river valley. It is the largest estuary in North America. Its productivity of seafood has been vastly decreased by human activities in the last one hundred years. Ocean and Coastal Zone Management is needed to protect our natural marine resources.